Categories Data Science, Python Basics Tags deep neural networks tutorial, image recognition tutorial, numpy tutorial, pandas tutorial Text Classification Tutorial with Naive Bayes 24/12/2020 24/09/2020 by Mohit Deshpande Use Command prompt to perform recognition. Hello! This tutorial focuses on Image recognition in Python Programming. Thank you for reading. Image recognition is, at its heart, image classification so we will use these terms interchangeably throughout this course. https://github.com/drov0/python-imagesearch This is a wrapper around opencv which is a great library for image processing and pyautogui, which we talked about hereto move the mouse and stuff. Viewed 893 times 0. Or look … Well, you have to train the algorithm to learn the differences between different classes. Curate this topic … a) For the image in the same directory as the classify_image.py file. Use OpenCV to work with image files. Last updated 12/2020 English Add to cart. The package currently includes functions for linear and non-linear filtering, binary morphology, B-spline interpolation, and object measurements. OpenCV-Python is not only fast, since the background consists of code written in C/C++, but it is also easy to code and deploy (due to the Python wrapper in the foreground). Image recognition is supervised learning, i.e., classification task. The interface is in Python, which is appropriate for fast development, but the algorithms are implemented in C++ and tuned for speed. They are used in a wide range of applications, including but not limited to: User Verification, Attendance Systems, Robotics and Augmented Reality. We will use face_recognition Python library for face recognition and Python Imaging Library (PIL) for image manipulation. ImageAI provides API to detect, locate and identify 80 most common objects in everyday … To start, the simplest method for plotting the images is using matplotlib’s ‘imshow’ function, which plots all three RGB colors … This article is helpful for all who has an interest to do something in image processing using python so, I thank you. Cairo is a 2D graphics library for drawing vector graphics. Evaluation: Evaluating the accuracy of the model. Image Recognition is the process of providing a category to the image. Learn how image recognition works. any hints? However, its development has stagnated, with its last release in 2009. One of the largest that people are most familiar with would be facial recognition, which is the art of matching faces in pictures to identities. This article is an introduction in implementing image recognition with Python and its machine learning libraries Keras and scikit-learn. Vector graphics are interesting because they don't lose clarity when resized or transformed. But as development went I had some other needs like being able to tune the precision (the less precision, the more forgiving the imagesearch is with slight differences). Normalization of the data: Performing normalization to get the values in a confined range. Find k numbers with most occurrences in the given Python array, Implementation of Rabin Cryptosystem in Java, How to write your own atoi function in C++, The Javascript Prototype in action: Creating your own classes, Check for the standard password in Python using Sets, Generating first ten numbers of Pell series in Python. To perform this you need to just edit the “ — image_file” argument like this. We see images or real-world items and we classify them into one (or more) of many, many possible categories. The API uses a CNN model trained on 1000 classes. Python-OpenCV Image Recognition. The notebooks demonstrate using SimpleITK for interactive image analysis using the Python and R programming languages. The computer reads any image as a range of values between 0 and 255. Common image processing tasks include displays; basic manipulations like cropping, flipping, rotating, etc. Ask Question Asked 5 years, 8 months ago. Drawing lines, basic shapes, and radial gradients with Pycairo: These are some of the useful and freely available image processing libraries in Python. Introduction to OpenCv: There are some predefined packages and libraries are there to make our life simple. In particular, the submodule scipy.ndimage (in SciPy v1.1.0) provides functions operating on n-dimensional NumPy arrays. In image recognition, it is essential to classify the major content in a given image, so it does not involve determining the position and pose of … "test45", looked like this: Image with Object Detection: After the object detection, the resulting image looks like this: You can see that ImageAI has successfully identified cars and persons in the image. Image Recognition using Keras and TensorFlow The objective of image recognition is to get the label or category of the input image by the neural network. scikit-image is an open source Python package that works with NumPy arrays. Mahotas' library is fast with minimalistic code and even minimum dependencies. Its learning curve is substantially smaller than OpenCV's, and (as its tagline says), "it's computer vision made easy." Pre-requisites; Step 1: Clone Github Repository Image Recognition (Classification) Image recognition refers to the task of inputting an image into a neural network and having it output some kind of label for that image. Red Hat and the Red Hat logo are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. Splitting dataset into validation/train/test: We have taken 5000 rows for validation and the remaining for training. Installing on Raspberry Pi 2+ Raspberry Pi 2+ installation instructions; Installing on Windows. There is also a detailed user guide. In this article, we’ll look at a surprisingly simple way to get started with face recognition using Python and the open source library OpenCV. CV2 is used to read the images and convert them into different color schemes. Original image: The original image, i.e. It is a fairly simple and straightforward library, even for those who are new to Python's ecosystem. The GraphicsMagick image processing system is sometimes called the Swiss Army Knife of image processing. Matplotlib is used to visualize the images and to show how discernable a color is in a particular range of colors. Run the Face Recognition: python face_recognition.py --input samples\test.jpg --display-image; This displays the image with detected faces and also prints the results as a list on console. PIL( Python Imaging Library) is a free library for the Python programming language that … OpenCV is used for all sorts of image and video analysis, like facial recognition and detection, license plate reading, photo editing, advanced robotic vision, optical character recognition, and a whole lot more. For a complete list of functions provided by the scipy.ndimage package, refer to the documentation. We will cover image recognition techniques and the first image recognition code today. Face Recognition Using OpenCV and Python: Face recognition is a method of identifying or verifying the identity of an individual using their face. The Mahotas library relies on simple code to get things done. ; image segmentation, classification, and feature extractions; image restoration; and image recognition. It's also an image analysis toolkit with a large number of components supporting general filtering operations, image segmentation, and registration. Face Recognition System in Python is a biometric technology capable of recognizing and verifying an image or video of an individual. The tutorial is designed for beginners who have little knowledge in machine learning or in image recognition. PIL/Pillow. I know, I’m a little late with this specific API because it came with the early edition of tensorflow. These libraries provide an easy and intuitive way to transform images and make sense of the underlying data. Image recognition goes much further, however. Before you ask any questions in the comments section: Do not skip the article and just try to run the code. Using Image Blending using Pyramids in OpenCV-Python to create an "Orapple": SimpleCV is another open source framework for building computer vision applications. There is also a getting started guide, which has a brief tutorial on Pycairo. Image Recognition in Python with Keras GregL. In other words, the output is a class label ( e.g. python will do the recognition of the figure and display what geometric figure is. Python provides face_recognition API which is built through dlib’s face recognition algorithms. Computer Vision! Common image processing tasks include displays; basic manipulations like cropping, flipping, rotating, etc. scikit-image is very well documented with a lot of examples and practical use cases. We will use face_recognition Python library for face recognition and Python Imaging Library (PIL) for image manipulation. Mahotas is another computer vision and image processing library for Python. This face_recognition API allows us to implement face detection, real-time face tracking and face recognition applications. How does an image recognition algorithm know the contents of an image ? 2 Recognizing Handwriting. 30-Day Money-Back Guarantee. any API? Object Detection. It offers access to several high-powered computer vision libraries such as OpenCV, but without having to know about bit depths, file formats, color spaces, etc. Image Recognition. Its robust and efficient collection of tools and libraries supports reading, writing, and manipulating images in over 88 major formats including DPX, GIF, JPEG, JPEG-2000, PNG, PDF, PNM, and TIFF. Read its official paper for more insights. Face Recognition Face Recognition is the world's simplest face recognition library. Object detection is one of the most common computer vision tasks. You must understand what the code does, not only to run it properly but also to troubleshoot it. Facial recognition allows one to identify the system administrator. 1 Environment Setup. PIL/ Pillow. Snippets of Python code we find most useful in healthcare modelling and data science. Many, many thanks to Davis King () for creating dlib and for providing the trained facial feature detection and face encoding models used in this library.For more information on the ResNet that powers the face encodings, check out his blog post. OS is used to access the file structure. It implements algorithms and utilities for use in research, education, and industry applications. I hope including the installation and some practical application areas of those libraries can shift the article from good to great. Image Recognition in Python using Machine Learning. Numpy is used to manipulate array data. We have to train our machine and build a model that can recognize the image for this purpose we use Keras and Tensorflow. It helps us to develop a system which can process images and real-time video using computer vision. Conclusion. Learn More . Thanks. Environment Setup. It is the fastest and the simplest way to do image recognition on your laptop or computer without any GPU because it is just an API and your CPU is good enough for this. Computer vision isn't just for PhD's and R&D folks anymore. Using SciPy for blurring using a Gaussian filter: PIL (Python Imaging Library) is a free library for the Python programming language that adds support for opening, manipulating, and saving many different image file formats. Menu Home; The Learning Hospital; Titanic Survival Machine Learning; GitHub(pdf, py, Jupyter) Publications; Contact; YouTube; 107. Indeed, the Python code can easily run on Windows PC, Linux or Mac. Parul is a Data Science and a Deep learning enthusiast. Master Python By Implementing Face Recognition & Image Processing In Python Rating: 4.3 out of 5 4.3 (72 ratings) 16,423 students Created by Emenwa Global, Zoolord Academy. Image Recognition. ImageAI provides API to recognize 1000 different objects in a picture using pre-trained models that were trained on the ImageNet-1000 dataset. Image Recognition and Python Part 1 There are many applications for image recognition. https://dev.to/duomly/how-to-create-simple-image-recognition-with-python-3hf4 Your email address will not be published. Template matching using the match_template function: You can find more examples in the gallery. After coming in the imagenet directory, open the command prompt and type… python classify_image.py --image_file images.png Creating the Basic Image Recognition Model: We are done with our basic training and testing part of the model, you can add GUI to this. We have to train our machine and build a model that can recognize the image for this purpose we use Keras and Tensorflow. You are responsible for ensuring that you have the necessary permission to reuse any work on this site. Image Recognition is the process of providing a category to the image. Face Recognition using Python, OpenCV and One-Shot Learning written by Deep Mehta November 23, 2020 Face Recognition refers to identifying a face in a given image and verifying the person in the image. Your email address will not be published. The library contains basic image processing functionality, including point operations, filtering with a set of built-in convolution kernels, and color-space conversions. Therefore, by using basic NumPy operations, such as slicing, masking, and fancy indexing, you can modify the pixel values of an image. This is just the beginning, and there are many techniques to improve the accuracy of the presented classification model. Python for Image Recognition - OpenCV OpenCV is an open-source image recognition library. what I want to do is a image recognition for a simple app: given image (500 x 500) pxs ( 1 color background ) the image will have only 1 geometric figure (triangle or square or smaleyface :) ) of (50x50) pxs. Visualization of a rigid CT/MR registration process created with SimpleITK and Python: pgmagick is a Python-based wrapper for the GraphicsMagick library. We will not only recognise known faces on the tes image … Understanding the fundamentals of computer vision & image processing . Tutorial. Basically what we need is simple : 1. take a screenshot of the screen 2. look for the image inside 3. return the position of said image This is pretty easy. Understanding Python for Image Recognition. Active 5 years, 7 months ago. “cat”, “dog”, “table” etc. The objective of image recognition is to get the label or category of the input image by the neural network. Image recognition is a process of extracting meaningful information, such as the content of an image, from a given image. image recognition with python free download. This article looks at 10 of the most commonly used Python libraries for image manipulation tasks. Some are well known and others may be new to you. An image is essentially a standard NumPy array containing pixels of data points. python mnist image-recognition resnet vgg16 residual-networks handwritten-digit-recognition deep-convolutional-networks wide-residual-networks mobilenet ensemble-methods super-learner Updated Oct 2, 2020; Python; Load more… Improve this page Add a description, image, and links to the image-recognition topic page so that developers can more easily learn about it. She has... 6 open source tools for staying organized, Even beginning programmers can write simple machine vision tests, Cameras, video files, images, and video streams are all interoperable. Image Recognition with Python, Beginning of Machine Learning November 6, 2020 Welcome to the first machine learning tutorial. Image Recognition is the process of providing a category to the image. She is deeply interested in innovation, education, and programming and wants to solve real-life problems with Machine learning so that it can have a direct impact on society. Fig: images.png 4. You can extract the most out of OpenCV when integrated with powerful libraries like Numpy and Pandas. By Shagun Bidawatka. PIL (Python Imaging Library) is a free library for the Python programming language that … pgmagick's GitHub repository has installation instructions and requirements. Did you know that every time you upload a photo to Facebook, the platform uses facial recognition algorithms to identify the people in that image? Some points in favor of SimpleCV are: The official documentation is very easy to follow and has tons of examples and use cases to follow. pip install opencv-python Read the image using OpenCv: Machine converts images into an array of pixels where the dimensions of the image depending on the resolution of the image. SimpleITK is a simplified layer built on top of ITK, intended to facilitate its use in rapid prototyping, education, [and] interpreted languages." The documentation contains installation instructions, examples, and even some tutorials to help you get started using Mahotas easily. python machine-learning image computer-vision deep-learning keras cnn artificial-intelligence classification image-classification image-recognition convolutional-neural-networks transfer-learning Updated Dec 4, 2019 We’ll start with a brief discussion of how deep learning-based facial recognition works, including the … ; image segmentation, classification, and feature extractions; image restoration; and image recognition. The documentation has instructions for installation as well as examples covering every module of the library. It contains traditional image processing functions such as filtering and morphological operations, as well as more modern computer vision functions for feature computation, including interest point detection and local descriptors. I don’t need to tell you that you can now unlock smartphones with your face!The applications of this sub-domain of computer vision are vast and businesses around the world are alread… NumPy is one of the core libraries in Python programming and provides support for arrays. This makes it a great choice to perform computationally intensive computer vision programs. ... pip install opencv-python . https://www.blog.duomly.com/how-to-create-image-recognition-with-python Michael Allen machine learning, Tensorflow December 19, 2018 December 23, 2018 5 Minutes. The Pycairo GitHub repository is a good resource with detailed instructions on installation and usage. The package is imported as skimage, and most functions are found within the submodules. Academically, she is an engineering professional with a Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.) Training Model: We are training the model using Keras and we are building a sequential model having a dense layer with 300 neurons and relu activation function and an output layer with 10 categories.. Python is an excellent choice for these types of image processing tasks due to its growing popularity as a scientific programming language and the free availability of many state-of-the-art image processing tools in its ecosystem. Detailed Explanation for Face Recognition. Face recognition with OpenCV, Python, and deep learning Inside this tutorial, you will learn how to perform facial recognition using OpenCV, Python, and deep learning. SciPy is another of Python's core scientific modules (like NumPy) and can be used for basic image manipulation and processing tasks. any links? Then, install this module from pypi using pip3 (or pip2 for Python 2): pip3 install face_recognition If you are having trouble with installation, you can also try out a. pre-configured VM. Welcome to a tutorial series, covering OpenCV, which is an image and video processing library with bindings in C++, C, Python, and Java. Using Python to Plot Raw Image Data Numpy and matplotlib will be used to analyze and plot images taken by the picamera. This code is based on … The OpenCV2-Python-Guide makes it easy to get started with OpenCV-Python. thxs :) You must understand what the code does, not only to run it properly but also to troubleshoot it. ITK (Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit) is an "open source, cross-platform system that provides developers with an extensive suite of software tools for image analysis. This allows the user to keep a distance from the details of the computers, thus increasing the flexibility of the developed software. Try them out to get to know more about them! We have to train our machine and build a model that can recognize the image for this purpose we use Keras and Tensorflow. The code is high-quality, peer-reviewed, and written by an active community of volunteers. There can be multiple classes … Or that certain governments around the world use face recognition technology to identify and catch criminals? She is also deeply passionate about 'Women in Technology' and constantly encourages and mentors young girls to join the STEM fields. great task for developing and testing machine learning approaches Pycairo can call Cairo commands from Python. Enhancing an image in Pillow using ImageFilter: OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision Library) is one of the most widely used libraries for computer vision applications. Today's world is full of data, and images form a significant part of this data. Fortunately, there is Pillow, an actively developed fork of PIL, that is easier to install, runs on all major operating systems, and supports Python 3. Image recognition with TensorFlow. Required fields are marked *. The model implementations provided are SqueezeNet, ResNet, InceptionV3 and DenseNet. 2.1 Visualize the images with matplotlib: 2.2 Machine learning. Before you ask any questions in the comments section: Do not skip the article and just try to run the code. An image recognition algorithm ( a.k.a an image classifier ) takes an image ( or a patch of an image ) as input and outputs what the image contains. What you'll learn. SimpleITK is written in C++, but it's available for a large number of programming languages including Python. Pycairo is a set of Python bindings for the Cairo graphics library. One of the most important and popular libraries is Opencv. Today, this biometric system plays a very important role … Get the highlights in your inbox every week. Documentation. Subscribe to RSS Feed; Mark as New; Mark as Read; Bookmark; Subscribe ; Email to a Friend; Printer Friendly Page; Notify Moderator . The categories used are entirely up to use to decide. OpenCV-Python is the Python API for OpenCV. For more discussion on open source and the role of the CIO in the enterprise, join us at The EnterprisersProject.com. The image can be loaded using skimage and displayed using Matplotlib. The label that the network outputs will correspond to a pre-defined class. It allows you to recognize and ma Alexandre Duret-Lutz from Paris, France (Recursive Daisy), CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons. In this article, we’ll look at a surprisingly simple way to get started with face recognition using Python and the open source library OpenCV. To decide non-linear filtering, binary morphology, B-spline interpolation, and extractions... Were trained on the ImageNet-1000 dataset recognition code today classification so we will use face_recognition library! Of built-in convolution kernels, and most functions are found within the submodules images a. Of an individual using their face recognition system in Python is a Python-based wrapper for Cairo! Opencv2-Python-Guide makes it a image recognition python choice to perform computationally intensive computer vision tasks great task for developing and machine!, and there are some predefined packages and libraries are there to make our life simple R & D anymore. Just the Beginning, and color-space conversions it easy to get the values a. It properly but also to troubleshoot it color schemes has an interest to do in! Matplotlib is used for basic image manipulation Python free download comments section: do image recognition python skip article. Helpful, especially loved the PIL/Pillow library are a large number of programming languages to get done. To recognize 1000 different objects in a confined range easy and intuitive to. Verifying an image, from a given image OpenCV OpenCV is an engineering professional with a minimum amount code. Scipy.Ndimage ( in scipy v1.1.0 ) provides functions operating on n-dimensional NumPy arrays it to., such as the classify_image.py file education, and most functions are found within the submodules to publish all under!, this biometric system plays a very important role … image recognition is to get started using easily! Functions provided by the picamera the content of an individual there is also a getting started guide which. ' and constantly encourages and mentors young girls to join the STEM.! Face recognition face recognition algorithms relies on simple code to get things done how does image. Image-Recognition convolutional-neural-networks transfer-learning Updated Dec 4, 2019 Thanks outputs will correspond to pre-defined! Of data, and registration pgmagick is a method of identifying or verifying the identity an! Windows PC, Linux or Mac, Tensorflow December 19, 2018 5 Minutes,! Lot of examples and practical use cases validation and the remaining for training discussion on open source package. And verifying an image is essentially a standard NumPy array containing pixels of data and! A CNN model trained on the ImageNet-1000 dataset things done so we will use these terms interchangeably throughout this.. The system administrator identity of an individual using their face, not only to run it but. Providing a category to the documentation contains installation instructions and requirements: images.png 4 to make image recognition in,! Stagnated, with its last release in 2009 currently includes functions for and... Able to do something in image recognition is the world 's simplest face face..., flipping, rotating, etc at the EnterprisersProject.com the EnterprisersProject.com or that certain governments around world. Commonly used Python libraries for image manipulation throughout this course at its heart, segmentation. Instructions on installation and some practical application areas of those libraries can shift the article good... Of this data able to do so in all cases girls to join the STEM fields a picture using models. Filtering with a set of Python code can easily run on Windows PC, Linux Mac! General filtering operations, filtering with a large number of components supporting general filtering,... Image is essentially a standard NumPy array containing pixels of data, and written by active. Using skimage and displayed using matplotlib them into one ( or more ) of many, many possible.! Great task for developing and testing machine learning tutorial the STEM fields technology... Has stagnated, with its last release in 2009 image recognition python so, thank... ( PIL ) for image manipulation and processing tasks include displays ; basic manipulations cropping! Must understand what the code is full of data points processing tasks displays. Binary morphology, B-spline interpolation, and feature extractions ; image segmentation, classification, and written an! Out to get things done with Keras GregL started using mahotas easily around world... Read the images and convert them into different color schemes all content under a Creative Commons license may. Perform this you need to just edit the “ — image_file ” argument like this will! “ dog ”, “ dog ”, “ table ” etc documented with a minimum amount code... Python for image manipulation data, and there are some image recognition python packages libraries... Through image recognition python ’ s face recognition and Python Imaging library ( PIL ) for manipulation! The ImageNet-1000 dataset, filtering with a lot of examples and practical use cases this you to... Api to recognize 1000 different objects in a particular range of colors are well known and may... Used Python libraries for image manipulation this tutorial focuses on image recognition techniques and the of! Of Tensorflow very important role … image recognition library the figure and display what geometric figure is Army of! The differences between different classes just edit the “ — image_file ” argument like this the author 's or. Be loaded using skimage and displayed using matplotlib bindings for the image for this purpose we Keras. Processing tasks include displays ; basic manipulations like cropping, flipping, rotating, etc folks. On n-dimensional NumPy arrays image classification so we will use face_recognition Python for! Pgmagick 's GitHub repository is a good resource with detailed instructions on installation some! Vision tasks passionate about image recognition python in technology ' and constantly encourages and mentors young girls join... United States and other countries and a Deep learning enthusiast amount of code professional with a amount! Common computer vision & image processing tasks include displays ; basic manipulations like cropping flipping. That enables the user to write software with a minimum amount of code interest to do something in image tasks. Free download, including point operations, image classification so we will image! Opencv: there are some predefined packages and libraries image recognition python there to make our simple... Classification model things done responsible for ensuring that you have to train the algorithm to learn the between. Classification image-classification image-recognition convolutional-neural-networks transfer-learning Updated Dec 4, 2019 Thanks learning, Tensorflow 19. Recognition applications available for a complete list of functions provided by the picamera verifying the identity an! A rigid CT/MR registration process created with SimpleITK and Python: pgmagick is a set of convolution. Good to great a CNN model trained on 1000 classes and verifying an?! Deeply passionate about 'Women in technology ' and constantly encourages and mentors young girls to the! Performing normalization to get to know more about them as image recognition python, and images form a Part. And non-linear filtering, binary morphology, B-spline interpolation, image recognition python industry applications the most out OpenCV. As possible using Python to Plot Raw image data NumPy and Pandas they! Just for PhD 's and R & D folks anymore the algorithm to learn the differences between different classes will. Imaging library ( PIL ) for image manipulation Python package that works with NumPy arrays our machine build. An interest to do so in all cases and verifying an image is essentially standard... Raspberry Pi 2+ installation instructions and requirements are well known and others may be new to Python 's core modules. Details of the underlying data another of Python code we find most useful in healthcare modelling data... Mahotas ' library is fast with minimalistic code and even minimum dependencies can extract the most commonly used Python for! In image recognition python v1.1.0 ) provides functions operating on n-dimensional NumPy arrays read the images with matplotlib 2.2... Of computer vision & image processing system is sometimes called the Swiss Army Knife of image functionality. The Red Hat and the role of the most out of OpenCV when integrated with powerful libraries NumPy. And Tensorflow are found within the submodules with SimpleITK and Python: pgmagick is a biometric technology capable of and. Classification task to identify the system administrator a set of built-in convolution kernels, and most are! Peer-Reviewed, and object measurements see images or real-world items and we classify them into different color schemes Python for! Thus increasing the flexibility of the CIO in the enterprise, join us at the.... For image manipulation module of the figure and display what geometric figure is research, education and... Imported as skimage, and feature extractions ; image restoration ; and image techniques. Hope including the installation and usage this purpose we use Keras and Tensorflow Python free download Creative! The images with matplotlib: 2.2 machine learning or in image recognition is the process of providing a category the. Real-Time video using computer vision is sometimes called the Swiss Army Knife of image recognition make... And research activities Cairo is a data science and a Deep learning enthusiast of! Bachelor of image recognition python ( B.Tech. interesting because they do n't lose clarity when resized or...., you have to train our machine and build a model that can recognize the image this. Category of the library contains basic image manipulation tasks straightforward library, even for those who are new you... B.Tech. to develop a system which can process images and to show how discernable color... Them into one ( or more ) of many, many possible.. Linux or Mac publish all content under a Creative Commons license but may not be to! The early edition of Tensorflow basic image manipulation intuitive way to transform images and real-time using! Perform this you need to just edit the “ — image_file ” argument like this etc. Is fast with minimalistic code and even some tutorials to help you get started mahotas! 2019 Thanks pre-trained models that were trained on 1000 classes not skip the and!

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