[14] The first design, completed in 1928, called for a 17,500 long tons (19,600 short tons) battlecruiser armed with eight 30.5 cm (12 in) guns in four twin gun turrets,[15] based on the design for the Ersatz Yorck-class battlecruisers that had not been completed during the war. Scharnhorst was now alone and blind, facing a total of 13 Allied warships... Scharnhorst made a second attempt to attack the convoy, and this time it was she who inflicted damage on HMS Norfolk. At this time, the exact position for HMS Duke of York is precisely recorded in her navigational log. Trumpeter models 5317 1/350 German Admiral Hipper Heavy Cruiser 1 9580208053172. German Scharnhorst Battleship Unassembled plastic model kit with photo-etch parts. The crew was augmented by another 10 officers and 61 men when serving as a squadron flagship. With her flared "clipper" bow and an extraordinary top speed of 33 knots, she had been described as one of the most beautiful warships ever built. The rotating mass of the turret was 750 tons (internal barbette diameter 10.2 m), and traversing speed was 7.2 deg/sec. [16] In 1933, Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany; he made clear to the naval command that he had no intention of building a large fleet to challenge British supremacy at sea. The British ship engaged Scharnhorst for a brief period starting at 05:18, but effective maneuvering by Scharnhorst allowed her to escape unscathed. On 20 June, enough repair work had been done to permit the ship to sail down to Kiel. Two air attacks followed, but anti-aircraft fire from Scharnhorst and her escorts drove them both back. After 1942, six 53.3 cm deck-mounted torpedo tubes were taken from the light cruisers Leipzig and Nürnberg and installed on the ships, with storage for 18 G7a torpedoes. [8], The German navy considered the ships to be poor sea boats; they were bow-heavy when fully equipped and very "wet" as high as the bridge. A series of raids started on 30 March. The bunker was supported by longitudinal stiffeners and transverse bulkheads. In late 1942, Gneisenau was heavily damaged in an Allied air raid against Kiel. [76], The ship was then disarmed and all but abandoned in the harbor. Another air raid, this time 15 Blackburn Skuas launched by the Royal Navy's HMS Ark Royal, followed on 13 June. Another significant weakness in the design was the arrangement of the torpedo bulkhead. Each plant consisted of four diesel generators and eight turbo-generators. He was primarily concerned with the possibility of a limited war with France, which would require the protection of German sea lanes. At very long ranges, the deck armor could be easily penetrated by heavy-caliber shells. However, an attack by British midget submarines badly damaged the Tirpitz, leaving the Scharnhorst to operate alone. This in turn prompted the German navy to begin plans for a more powerful battlecruiser design. Although there were 38 survivors, none had been picked up by the German warships. The vessel's multibeam sonar produces an image of two objects, one 170m long, the other 70m long, and positioned at an angle to the first. Their hulls contained 21 watertight compartments and had a double bottom for 79% of their length. The hull shows extensive damage from both armour-piercing shells and torpedoes. Read more. The Luftwaffe intercepted the raid and shot down eight of the aircraft; seven made it through to the ship. Some 55 torpedoes were launched at Scharnhorst, and 11 are believed to have found their target. 'Grand. Scharnhorst was listing severely and very low in the water. The rear conning tower was less well armored, with sides and a roof that were only 100 mm (3.9 in) and 50 mm thick, respectively. Our hearts have mellowed now, but in wartime those hearts are hardened. Admiral Bruce Fraser, aboard the battleship HMS Duke of York, was some 270 miles away, and steaming to cut off Scharnhorst after she was engaged by the three cruisers. It added to the galloping sense of defeat stoked up by German losses on the Eastern front. By 03:50 on 13 February, the ship had reached Helgoland. The sinking of the Scharnhorst was an enormous psychological blow for the German nation, at the height of World War Two. Hand Tools. The four diesel generators were divided into pairs: two provided 150 kilowatts each and two supplied 300 kW each. Beyond this was a fuel bunker with an 8 mm (0.31 in) thick outer wall; this would absorb any remaining explosive force. [32], On 7 April 1940, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau formed the primary covering force for the invasions of Narvik and Trondheim in Norway during Operation Weserübung. [37] By 07:15, the German ships had escaped from the slower Renown. In early 1942, the two ships made a daylight dash up the English Channel from occupied France to Germany. Like most German battleships, Scharnhorst was under-armed for its size. [77] Her 15 cm guns were placed as coastal batteries in Denmark. Near Terschelling, Gneisenau struck a mine that did minor damage to the hull, and the explosive shock damaged one of her three turbines. In future, aircraft-carriers would dictate the outcome of major naval engagements. They were designed in answer to the French Dunkerque class which were slightly less armoured than battleships, so to be called at the time “battlecruisers” too. Scharnhorst was launched first,[6] and is considered to be the lead ship by some sources; they are also referred to as the Gneisenau class in some other sources,[7] as Gneisenau was the first to be laid down and commissioned. A total of 55 torpedoes are fired at Scharnhorst, and 11 found their target. When steaming in reverse, the engines were rated for 57,000 PS (56,220 ihp; 41,923 kW). All the heavy ships of the German Navy should be reduced to scrap, their guns removed and used for coastal defences. There is now an explanation of why she sank so suddenly. These guns fired 45.3 kg (99.87 lb) shells at a rate of 6–8 per minute. The German ships therefore broke off the attack. It is similar to an aircraft simulator, but with a warship's bridge replacing the flight deck. The sets were later upgraded to operate at 100 kW, on the 80 cm wavelength (375 MHz.). Almost 60 years later, a Norwegian underwater survey vessel searched the 25 square kilometres of the seabed surrounding that official position. By early 1943, repair work was largely completed and the ship was ready to receive the improved bow and 38 cm turrets, but this was not to be. [18], To combat the German Panzerschiffe, the French built two small Dunkerque-class battleships in the early 1930s. [56], Gneisenau and Prinz Eugen had continued their journey to Norway while Scharnhorst was immobilized. [40], Under the command of Admiral Günther Lütjens, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau broke into the Atlantic in late January 1941 to raid convoys between North America and Great Britain. Scharnhorst and several destroyers sortied from Norway to attack a convoy; the Germans were instead intercepted by British naval patrols. The engines were rated at 160,000 metric horsepower (157,811 shp; 117,680 kW) at 265 revolutions per minute (rpm), and on trials produced up to 165,930 PS (163,660 ihp; 122,041 kW) at 280 rpm. [40][43][44], Brest was comfortably within range for air attack from Britain. Similarly to most other German installations, those turrets had an electric system of rotation, but all other operations were hydraulic systems. It was supported by 105 mm (4.1 in) thick slopes on either longitudinal side. [49] The ship listed at 8°, after having taken in between 1,520 long tons (1,700 short tons) and 3,050 long tons (3,420 short tons) of water; the list was reduced to 2° by counter-flooding. New battleships, battlecruisers, pocket battleships, and heavy and light cruisers were built during the 1930s. Admiral Fraser ordered his destroyers to approach the ship and torpedo her. The ship was immobilized briefly—between 15:49 and 16:01, all three turbines were restarted and the ship resumed a speed of 27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph). [18] Hitler agreed to increased armor protection and internal subdivision, but refused to permit an increase in armament. Seen for the first time in almost 60 years, Scharnhorst's hull lies upside down on the seabed. On its first operation in November 1939, it engaged the British cruiser Rawalpindiin a short skirmish which ended up in the sinking of the Rawalpindi and the death of it’s captain, Edward Coverly Kennedy. Read more. [33][36] Scharnhorst's gunnery radar suffered technical problems, which prevented her from effectively engaging Renown. They were the first class of German ships to be officially classified by the Kriegsmarine as Schlachtschiff (battleship). However, is it any more credible than the official position? "Germany 3.7 cm/L83 (1.5") SK C/30 3.7 cm/L83 (1.5") SK C/30U", "German 2 cm/65 (0.79") C/30 2 cm/65 (0.79") C/38 AA MG", German naval ship classes of World War II, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scharnhorst-class_battleship&oldid=1007188651, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 3 three-bladed propellers, 4.8 m (15 ft 9 inch) diameter, This page was last edited on 16 February 2021, at 22:09. Total power output was 4,120 kW at 220 volts. [38], Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, with Admiral Hipper and four destroyers, departed again on 4 June. One of the 227 kg bombs penetrated the upper deck just forward of the rear gun turret, and exploded on the main armored deck. Seen for the first time in almost 60 years, Scharnhorst's hull lies upside down on the seabed. $127.36 At 1617, the battleship Duke of York of Force II (Admiral Fraser) obtains radar contact with Scharnhorst from 42,500 meters (46,480 yards), and after closing the range to 10,900 meters (11,920 yards) opens fire at 1648. The ship emerged from the dockyard in October. The British ships could only hope to shadow her at ever-increasing distances, rather than pursue her. Both Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were equipped with two sets of Seetakt radar. [55] By noon on 13 February, Scharnhorst had reached Wilhelmshaven. One was mounted on the forward gun director, which was located on top of the bridge. None of the logs of the other ships taking part in the battle give any positions for the sinking, but there is a unique method to check the accuracy of the log position. They fired their last shot in 2000, after which the fortress was turned into a museum. The shock force of the explosion also did a great deal of internal damage; fuel tanks were ruptured and electrical systems were damaged. The German Navy battleship Scharnhorst joins the 1/200 Warship Series of model kits from Trumpeter! The intent of the operation was to draw out British units and ease the pressure on the heavy cruiser ("pocket battleship") Admiral Graf Spee, which was being pursued in the South Atlantic. [61], On 20 December 1943, Scharnhorst was ordered to intercept the next convoy to the Soviet Union, Convoy JW 55B. The Royal Navy knew that the Scharnhorst was on her way, because members of the Norwegian Resistance had radioed that she had sailed. [3] The 3.7 cm guns were placed in eight manually operated Dopp LC/30 twin mounts. [41] On 8 February, they spotted a convoy, HX 106, but it was escorted by the battleship HMS Ramillies, armed with eight 38 cm (15 in) guns. 1,519 men were lost from the three ships. [23], The Scharnhorst-class ships were equipped with Krupp armor. By Norman Fenton On 26 December, the British warships were signalled that the 'Admiralty appreciate Scharnhorst is probably at sea'. [65], By 10:00, Scharnhorst, using her 4–6 knot speed advantage, broke off the engagement and resumed searching for the convoy. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. [8] The slopes connected to the lower edge of the main belt, an arrangement referred to as the "turtle deck. The cruises revealed the wetness of the bow and bridge; in January 1939 her "Atlantic bow" was installed. Finally, by February 1934, Hitler acquiesced over the addition of the third turret. Scharnhorst was a battleship/battlecruiser that served with Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. When Scharnhorst was sunk, work on her sister was abandoned. Join us now! One of the attacking aircraft was successful;[h] the hit did significant damage to the ship. Select a thumbnail to see the picture full-size. Admiral Bey, on board the Scharnhorst, had orders from Doenitz to withdraw 'if heavy forces encountered'. The Scharnhorst had disappeared when HMS Belfast attempted to deliver its second torpedo attack. At 15:31, Scharnhorst detonated a magnetic mine, which damaged the ship's circuit breakers enough to shut down the entire electrical system. At 16:45 on 8 June, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau spotted the British aircraft carrier HMS Glorious, which was escorted by the destroyers Acasta and Ardent, at a range of around 50,000 m (55,000 yd). As is her entire poop deck, with the stern anchor still in place. Scharnhorst was hit at least four times by torpedoes fired by HMS Scorpion and HNoMS Stord. A week later, on the 15th, another convoy was intercepted; Scharnhorst sank two vessels[40] while Gneisenau captured three and sank one. Almost immediately the Scharnhorst is hit by a … When they opened fire, Scharnhorst was taken totally by surprise, and a shell from HMS Norfolk destroyed the Scharnhorst's radar. The Scharnhorst was built by the War Naval Shipyard Wilhelmshaven, Germany, and launched on October 3, 1936.  © The destroyer HMS Saumarez was hit, and 11 British seamen were killed outright. … Their upper armored deck was 50 mm (2.0 in) thick, and backed by the main armor deck. [50] The last bomb fell on the starboard side and also detonated on the main armor deck. [19] This was also the view of the Kriegsmarine, which saw the 19,000-ton design as being unbalanced. Among these was the battlecruiser Scharnhorst, one of … At 12:00, Belfast again picked up Scharnhorst, and in 20 minutes were again in range. For 6 months, fuel shortages curtailed any major operations by Scharnhorst or the other ships in Norway,[59] which included the battleship Tirpitz and the heavy cruiser Lützow. [8], Initially, diesel propulsion was planned for these ships, as had been used for the three Panzerschiffe. Note: Prices and availability are indications only. However, it could be a geological feature on the seabed. The first capital ships of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, it comprised two vessels: Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. Scharnhorst was a German capital ship, alternatively described as a battleship or battlecruiser, of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine.She was the lead ship of her class, which included one other ship, Gneisenau.The ship was built at the Kriegsmarinewerft dockyard in Wilhelmshaven; she was laid down on 15 June 1935 and launched a year and four months later on 3 October 1936. [41] On 8 March, Scharnhorst spotted another convoy, but it too had battleship protection, in the form of HMS Malaya. [8] Previous German battleships were classified as Linienschiffe (ships of the line),[a] and Panzerschiffe (armored ship). At 14:45, the ships were attacked by five Whirlwind fighter-bombers—German fighters beat them back. However, she was unaware that three British cruisers were approaching from the east. The underwater protection could stop only a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead in these areas. The Scharnhorst was the lead ship of one of the most active classes of German capital ships. [17], The construction of new D-class cruisers were canceled to make way for Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. The battlecruiser was a symbol of Germany's global reach. Only 36 men were rescued, out of a crew of 1,968. They were supplied with between 1,600–1,800 shells, or 133–150 shells per gun. On board HMS Duke of York, Admiral Fraser ceased firing, and ordered his combined forces to attack with torpedoes. This assertively-sized kit is slide-molded for accuracy and delicate details, and it comes with two AR196 aircraft and an incredible six sets of photo-etched parts. Two days later, the German flotilla intercepted the British auxiliary cruiser In his official Dispatches, Admiral Fraser stated that 'no ship saw the enemy sink' but, regardless of this, he proceeded to record an official position for that sinking. Producer Norman Fenton's interest in locating the Scharnhorst resulted from his successful search in the Arctic for the wreck of the Hull trawler Gaul, during a television investigation into the use of trawlers to spy on the Soviet Union's Northern Fleet. While the 28.3 cm guns were of a smaller caliber than main guns of other navies, they were still preferred by a number of gunnery officers in the Kriegsmarine due to their higher rate of fire. 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