1950: British prime minister Margaret Thatcher, then Miss Margaret Roberts, attending a garden party at Buckingham Palace, as a Conservative MP. Or 1813? The 1973 coup is often represented as having destroyed Chilean democracy. But they did many things right. Speaking at … To prevent any military personnel, down to lowest ranking officers, from taking a false step: this could happen to you! As the tributes flood in for Margaret Thatcher, the epoch-defining former British Prime Minister, one narrative remains cast in bronze.In the U.S., in particular, she’s lionized as the Iron Lady who stood with President Ronald Reagan, stared down the Soviet Union and helped usher in a new era of global liberty.Thatcher was a paragon of the West, a latter-day Churchill, a … Pinochet, by contrast, had friends in high places. As reported by Hector Schamis in the Journal of Democracy (October 2006), Chile’s current foreign minister, Alejandro Foxley, recognized early in the first post-Pinochet democratic government that “the constitutional rules left by Pinochet had ‘somewhat ironically fostered a more democratic system,’ for they forced major actors into compromise rather than confrontation and, by ‘avoiding populism,’ increased ‘economic governability.’”. Born in 1925 in Grantham, England, her memories of wartime bombing left her with a lifelong mistrust of German power that would re … But Castro trained thousands of guerrillas from countries all over the world and sent hundreds of thousands of Cuban troops to many countries on at least three continents to launch and wage wars that brought untold death and destruction. Margaret Thatcher, accompanied by her husband Denis (1915 - 2003) and children Carol and Mark, on election night when she led the Conservative Party to victory in the British General Election. Thatcher had the economics part of the equation worked out; it’s too bad she had an immense Warboner, sang the praises of dictators like Pinochet, called Nelson Mandela a … A number of other important truths about the Pinochet period and its legacy are equally well documented but less well known. It also matters because the 48 hours after a powerful public figure dies is when the halo becomes permanently affixed to their head. Thatcherism is a form of British conservative ideology named after Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher.The term has been used to describe the principles of the British government under Thatcher from the 1979 general election to her resignation in 1990, and continuing into the Conservative governments under John Major and David Cameron. At that time the Chilean economic model was considered anathema almost everywhere—partly because of its association with Chile’s military regime but also because it was viewed (wrongly, as it turned out) as an unthinkable, reactionary model per se, especially for developing countries. Pinochet's rule was inhumane and brutal, but was it terrorism? Cuba and the United States were actively involved on opposite sides, but the main players were always Chilean. Poverty levels, as high as 50 percent in 1984, were reduced to 34 percent by 1989. Thatcher and Europe. Some forums can only be seen by registered members. The problem with this narrative, as with almost all narratives that invoke the spectre of terrorism, is that they rely on a decidedly one-sided view of the world. society. Some of his legacies are well known, but others are not. The facts are otherwise. Chile’s democracy after 1990 has been vigorous and stable. He brought the country to the verge of chaos on the basis of a slim democratic mandate, and as we now know had links to the Cubans. We should be doing is analysing the success of their decisions, and what their actions helped achieve. John B. Taylor is the George P. Shultz Senior Fellow in Economics at the Hoover Institution and the Mary and Robert Raymond Professor of Economics at Stanford University. Not in Thatcher’s speeches and letters to newspapers, which were hoarse with outrage but also careful to mention Pinochet’s assistance to Britain only in connection the Falklands. Murdering gangster. In 1970, Allende won 36.2 percent of the popular vote, less than the 38.6 percent he had taken in 1964 and only 1.3 percent more than the runner-up. Totalitarian regimes legitimize and practice very high degrees of penetration into all aspects of the economy, society, religion, culture, and family, whereas authoritarian regimes do not. Very little has been said about Thatcher's dealings with General Pinochet, apartheid South Africa, the Khmer Rouge, the House of Saud and Saddam … Major state expenditures for direct action social programs targeted to the poorest of the poor were initiated in the middle 1980s, not after 1990. - President Ronald Reagan greets Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in Bonn, Germany 1985. Together with Ronald Reagan, she can be credited with a hand in the fall of the Soviet Union. It created the underlying economic policies and structures in the 1970s and 1980s that the Concertación maintained and that produced jobs for the poor and an economic surplus to enable targeted state antipoverty programs. Thatcher's support for Chile's former torturer-in-chief General Pinochet is no secret; it was something she was proud of. The Concertación, the alliance of political parties of the center and left that has won the past four presidential elections, deserves some credit for the post-1990 years, but so does the Pinochet government. Lawlessness became rampant. Many on the left had long believed that capitalism and democracy were incompatible. This distinction is fundamental in comparative political analysis. Her position had to do with several strong convictions: 1. But the problem with attacking Corbyn, Thatcher or anyone else along these lines is that we lose any real context for their actions. The case could also be made by those in the UK affected by Thatcher's Pinochet-tested economic dictates who choose not to mourn. It’s time to acknowledge that the legacies of the Pinochet years are a much better mix than they are usually said to be. Whatever his views, Corbyn has never wielded the levers of power in government, and has never done more than put forward ideas. The other Margaret Thatcher is that who fought Socialism and was part, as Paul Johnson describes it, “the heroic trinity that tamed the bear”, next to Ronald Reagan … Or was it 1913? But its main elements have not changed, and thus far no post-1990 government has proposed or seriously considered going back to either of the two previous, failed models, namely, state capitalism (1938–70) or state socialism (1970–73). In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Chile’s democracy was already well on the road to self-destruction. Inflation [went] down from 600 per cent to 6 per cent [...] living standards more than doubled”. Along with the murder of thousands of Chileans, Pinochet, like Thatcher, dismantled popular political institutions and oversaw the first country in the world to adopt what would become known as the neoliberal model. In the process Allende, his supporters, and extremists they could not control virtually destroyed the economy, fractured the society, politicized the military and the educational systems, and rode roughshod over Chilean constitutional, legal, political, and cultural traditions. Poverty had increased enormously during and in the wake of the UP’s disastrous economic policies, and it decreased only as a result of the state-led stabilization policies, structural reforms, and targeted social programs of the Pinochet period. She feared that supranational institutions were threatening British sovereignty… While Thatcher approved of some of Tony Blair’s economic policies, his Europhilia bothered her. The coup was supported by Allende’s presidential predecessor, Eduardo Frei Montalva; by Patricio Aylwin, the first democratically elected president after democracy was restored in 1990; and by an overwhelming majority of the Chilean people. This support cost the lives of hundreds of thousands of Kurds, Arabs and Persians. Margaret Roberts, later Thatcher, the youngest candidate in the Conservative Party, plans her election campaign. By now, the economic policies of most countries of Latin America; North America; Western, Central, and Eastern Europe; China; India; Russia and its former republics; much of Africa; and many other places around the world have followed the Chilean lead rather than fled from it. How many nations a decade or century from now will aspire to the “successes” of Fidel Castro—or of Salvador Allende? “Sometimes democracy must be bathed in blood.” – Augusto Pinochet “Not a leaf moves in this country if I'm not moving it.” - Pinochet, October 1981 Remember September 11th, 1973 During the height of the Cold War, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the United States stepped up their efforts in assuring Western hegemony in… But global perceptions of the Chilean economic model changed, slowly at first, more rapidly and massively after the mid-1980s. Totalitarian systems—once in place and short of external military conquest and occupation—are much harder to change than authoritarian ones. That created a greater potential for boom and bust - the 2007 financial crash was an indication of what light touch regulation can lead to. 3rd June 1975: British conservative politician, Margaret Thatcher, with William Whitelaw and Peter Kirk, at a referendum conference on Europe. Domestic banks were deregulated in the late 1970s but reregulated with vigor in the early 1980s. It has become fashionable in some quarters lately to claim that Chile’s successful record of economic development in recent decades actually began in 1990, during the first civilian government since 1973. The appearance of GDP growth in the South American country created the mythology of the Chilean miracle, ‘thanks’ to the Chicago Boys, the group of young Chilean economists who studied at the University of Chicago under the adviser to U.S. President Ronald Reagan and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, professor Milton Friedman. She and Reagan not only shared a … Then He Was Assassinated. This was a man who initiated the notorious Caravan of Death, the army unit that travelled the country by helicopter, murdering and torturing the General's opponents. It created the underlying economic policies and structures in the 1970s and 1980s that the Concertación maintained and that produced jobs for the poor and an economic surplus to enable targeted state antipoverty programs. ... state capitalism toward more market-oriented structures and policies—was not Deng Xiaoping’s China or Margaret Thatcher’s Britain in the late 1970s, Ronald Reagan’s United States in 1981, or any other country in Latin America or elsewhere. The initiative is in partnership with Brazil’s foreign office, which has swung to the right under Bolsonaro, forming close ties with conservative leaders such Donald Trump and Victor Orbán. Proponents of Thatcherism … Cuba and the United States were actively involved on opposite sides, but the main players were always Chilean. Some conservatives would be wise to look closer to home before casting the first stone. ... Salvador Allende in Chile, whose rise provoked Pinochet’s coup, was a case in point. During her time in office, Thatcher also viewed Nelson Mandela's ANC as a terrorist organisation, but not the state that was engaging in a brutal system of institutional terrorism. The word “terrorist” blinds us to anything meaningful conclusions, and suffocates any rational debate. As the then finance minister, Alejandro Foxley, said in a 1991 interview: “We may not like the government that came before us. It could almost be a mantra for much of the political discourse of the 20th century. Chile’s former president, General Augusto Pinochet, died in December. Castro killed at least as many Cubans as Pinochet did Chileans. In a brazen demonstration of its contempt for majority wishes, and for the institutions of what it called “bourgeois democracy,” the pro-Allende newspaper Puro Chile reported the results of the March 1973 legislative elections with this headline: “The People, 43%. Available from the Hoover Press is Law and Economics in Developing Countries, by Edgardo Buscaglia and William Ratliff. 40 Years Ago, This Chilean Exile Warned Us About the Shock Doctrine. That created a greater potential for boom and bust - the 2007 financial crash was an indication of what light touch regulation can lead to. Amnesty International strongly supported the Chilean leader’s extradition to Spain in 1998 for a trial it thought would enact justice. Although there were changes at the margins after 1990, the point of sharpest and deepest positive change was unquestionably 1973 and immediately thereafter, not 1970 or 1990. After the Falklands War this included overt patriotism and contempt for communism. The historian James Whelan caught its tragic essence when he wrote that Chile’s was a “cannibalistic democracy, consuming itself.” Eduardo Frei Montalva, Chile’s president from 1964 to 1970, who helped to bring in Salvador Allende as his successor, later called the latter’s presidency “this carnival of madness.” Freedoms increasingly overwhelmed responsibilities. Thatcher not only publicly supported Pinochet, writing letters to the editor and issuing public statements; she even went to visit him after he was served with a warrant from Spain. Violence escalated rapidly, with the extreme left, including many members of the president’s own party, seizing properties and setting up independent zones in cities and the countryside, often contrary to what Allende and the Communists thought prudent. Thatcher and Ronald Reagan worked hand in hand to carry out a neoliberal agenda and quell liberation movements worldwide. Pinochet directed the coup of September 11, 1973, and presided until 1990 over a military regime that violated human rights, shut down political parties, canceled elections, constrained the press and trade unions, and engaged in other undemocratic actions during its more than 16 years of rule. Thatcher did what she thought she had to do, and so did Corbyn. Consider also the two types of regimes’ different propensities to enable a transition to democracy. The first country in the world to make that momentous break with the past—away from socialism and extreme state capitalism toward more market-oriented structures and policies—was not Deng Xiaoping’s China or Margaret Thatcher’s Britain in the late 1970s, Ronald Reagan’s United States in 1981, or any other country in Latin America or elsewhere. Indeed, they are often not acknowledged at all. Thatcher was a strong supporter of the brutal dictator right up until his death while on house arrest in Britain awaiting trial. Robin Harris, a former member of Thatcher's Policy Unit, claimed in 2006 that she had nothing to be ashamed of. Margaret Thatcher with Chilean dictator, General Augusto Pinochet. The economy minister, Paulo Guedes, trained in free market fundamentals at the Chicago School of Economics – the seedbed for Reagan and Thatcher’s economic policies – and worked at the University of Chile during Augusto Pinochet’s dictatorship in the 1980s. This new model, which we call social capitalism, was adjusted, revised, and supplemented during the Pinochet years, most importantly in response to an economic crisis in the early 1980s and also in the post-1990 civilian years. Margaret Thatcher – 1999 Statement on General Pinochet January 9, 2016 admin 1999 , Margaret Thatcher , Speeches Below is the text of the statement made in the House of Lords by Baroness Margaret Thatcher on 6 July 1999. The charges against Corbyn, regardless of their merit, cannot exist in a political vacuum of good versus evil though. Poverty levels, as high as 50 percent in 1984, were reduced to 34 percent by 1989. https://www.grunge.com/174242/the-messed-up-truth-about-margaret-thatcher The Mummies, 55%.” This attitude and the actions that followed from it galvanized the center-left and right, whose candidates had received almost two-thirds of the votes in the 1970 election, against Allende. It was Pinochet’s Chile in 1975. The economy minister, Paulo Guedes, trained in free market fundamentals at the Chicago School of Economics – the seedbed for Reagan and Thatcher’s economic policies – and worked at the University of Chile during Augusto Pinochet’s dictatorship in the 1980s. Although they never met in power, Thatcher was impressed by the success of Chile’s neoliberal economic program and Pinochet’s bloody stance against communism in Latin America. Chile’s former president, General Augusto Pinochet, died in December. His legacy is Latin America’s most successful country.”) We will focus on the generally neglected, discounted, distorted, and sometimes falsely denied or suppressed aspects of the Pinochet legacy that have truly made Chile, despite its continuing challenges, “Latin America’s most successful country.”. Survivor of Pinochet explains why she celebrates death of Thatcher (Reagan, Obama) User Name: Remember Me: Password : Please register to participate in our discussions with 2 million other members - it's free and quick! The most concerning thing Thatcher and Reagan did related to de-regulation in the financial services sector. Allende’s closest UP allies were the Communists, the right wing of the UP, but both were pressed to move faster than they wanted by the left wing of the UP, mainly members of Allende’s Socialist Party, and by ultraleftists (the term used by the Communists) to the left of the UP. They continued to fall after 1990 to 15 percent in 2005. Thatcher was a steadfast defender of Augusto Pinochet, ... alongside Ronald Reagan, to back sanctions against the Apartheid regime in … Thatcher was a steadfast defender of Augusto Pinochet, ... alongside Ronald Reagan, to back sanctions against the Apartheid regime in … Despite her assertion that “The United States and Britain have together been the greatest alliance in defence of liberty and justice,” Thatcher refused to back down in her support of a man who overthrew a democratically elected government. Baroness Thatcher, who served Pinochet tea at her London home two weeks ago, wrote to the Times newspaper that he "did so much to save British lives" … These facts are important and widely recounted. Thatcher death cake Her legacy has a rhetorical aspect as well, one other reason I hesitate to commute the vitriol. ", Read our full mailing list consent terms here. 1982: British prime minister Margaret Thatcher, American president Ronald Reagan (left) and US Secretary of State Alexander Haig (centre) outside Number 10, Downing Street during Reagan's state visit to London. Pinochet’s authoritarianism in Chile ended after 16 years in a peaceful and constitutional transfer of power, permitted by a constitution passed in 1980; Castro’s totalitarian regime in Cuba has lasted 48 years so far. President Pinochet and his civilian advisers, after an elaborate and lengthy process of deliberation and decision making in 1973–1975, in which various alternative courses of action were considered, put in place the radically new set of market-oriented structures and policies that have been and remain the foundations of Chile’s subsequent three decades of economic and social development. Chile’s largest industry and biggest foreign-exchange earner by far is copper, which was nationalized in the late 1960s and early 1970s and has remained so ever since. Friend of Reagan and Thatcher. Today almost the entire globe relies on the state less and on markets more than in 1973. In a comment piece for The Telegraph, he wrote that “the legal case against him was weak and the motivation of those involved suspect” and “the loss of life, most of which occurred in the first months when a civil war raged, was less than in other similar situations”. Range of styles in up to 16 colors. Less than three weeks later, the military, led by newly appointed army commander in chief Pinochet, overthrew the government. Thatcher not only publicly supported Pinochet, writing letters to the editor and issuing public statements; she even went to visit him after he was served with a … In 1998, Baltasar Garzón, a Spanish judge, demanded the extradition of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet from the United Kingdom, where he had traveled to receive medical treatment. That created a greater potential for boom and bust - the 2007 financial crash was an indication of what light touch regulation can lead to. However, dictators of the right such as Augusto Pinochet … It chose Allende only after he pledged explicitly to abide by the constitution. ... Salvador Allende in Chile, whose rise provoked Pinochet’s coup, was a case in point. Support the Mission of the Hoover Institution, Battlegrounds: International Perspectives, John Cochrane: On The Happy Surprise Of China Seeking Trade Negotiations (3:42), Prey: Immigration, Islam, and the Erosion of Women's Rights. So far they've linked him with the IRA, Hamas and Hezbollah. He also pointed out that “other statistics of Pinochet's record are worth mentioning. Reagan, for one, recognized the importance of Margaret Thatcher's presence as British prime minister, but would caution any discussion partner that Pope John Paul played an equally important role. (October 2006), Chile’s current foreign minister, Alejandro Foxley, recognized early in the first post-Pinochet democratic government that “the constitutional rules left by Pinochet had ‘somewhat ironically fostered a more democratic system,’ for they forced major actors into compromise rather than confrontation and, by ‘avoiding populism,’ increased ‘economic governability.’”. Yet if we look to the icon of conservative politics and "keeping Britain safe", we have someone with a well-documented history of being a terrorist sympathiser. 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